The tutorial is based on R and StatsNotebook, a graphical interface for R.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for causal inference. In RCTs, randomisation removes all confoundings between the treatment (exposure) and control group. However, RCTs are not always feasible due to ethical or logistic issues (e.g., testing the causal impact of smoking on lung cancer). Propensity score matching can be used to emulate the balance between treatment and control group in an observational study.